Sake World Sake e-Newsletter
May 1, 2002
IN THIS ISSUE:
-Bubbles, Foam and Froth
-The Sake of Nara
-Good sake to look for
-Sake events and other miscellany
Bubbles, Foam and
Sake brewing today has become very scientific. But long ago, before the
days of thermometers, hydrometers, and barometers, brewers relied
entirely on their five senses to gauge the progress of
a fermenting tank
Although they might not have known the scientific causes for the
phenomena they were observing, experience and intuition told them how to interpret what they saw, tasted
and smelled. One of the most reliable of these empirical yardsticks - and one that is still used today - is the
appearance of the foam on the top of the moromi (fermenting mash).
Throughout the 18 to
35 day ferment, the foam will change appearance quite regularly, and very clearly reflect what is taking place inside the tank. Over the centuries, names were given to the foam at each stage that made it easy to
assess and convey the status of the work in progress.
After the yeast starter has been created, and after the three additions of water, rice and koji over four days have been completed, foam will begin
to develop as the yeast cells process the sugars in the tank, and give off carbon dioxide. This will rise to the surface, often still attached to the yeast cells. This is why the foam has two and a half times as
many yeast cells in it as the liquid beneath.
Two or three days into the ferment, small striations will appear on the surface, similar to taught muscle under skin; hence the term suji-awa (muscle foam).
Next, a think layer of soft foam will begin to cover the entire tank; this is known as mizu-awa (water foam).
The timing of these changes of course depends on a myriad of factors, such as how much the
rice has been milled, and the temperature of the tank. But soon after this the ferment will enter its most active stage, and foam will rise in great swaths, so that it looks like huge rocks tumbling over each
other. This is known as iwa-awa (rock foam).
This continues into the highest stage of foam, known as taka-awa, with the bubbles themselves at this stage being very small and fine. This usually occurs
about the tenth day or so, but there is great variation depending on a plethora of factors.
The foam rises so high that brewers usually rig a simple rig consisting of a piece of wire that gently spins on
a motor with the sole purpose of gradually beating down the foam as it rises. This spares them the need for extremely high-walled tanks. It also aids in sanitation, as one of the greatest sources of
sake-spoiling bacteria is foam that has dried on the inside of the tank.
As the fermentation begins to wane, the foam too falls back, leading to the stage known as ochi-awa (falling foam). This segues
into a stage with very large, soapy-looking bubbles known as tama-awa (ball foam).
After this foam, too, fades away, the surface of the moromi is referred to as ji, or ground. This stage has many
sub-conditions with their own names. Small wrinkles in the surface are referred to as chiri-men (a type of rough cloth). A totally smooth surface is known as bozu, in reference to the shaved head of a priest. If
rice solids that did not ferment have risen to the surface, it may look like a lid is on the moromi, and this is referred to as futa (lid).
Much can be told about the quality of the sake at this stage
from observing this surface. For example, if the lid is thick (kogai, or thick lid), it indicates that a significant amount of wild yeast ended up in the moromi and survived.
This is because the fibers
in rice tend to attach themselves to many types of wild yeast, and rice to the surface when pulled by the carbon dioxide molecules, giving that thick-lidded appearance. Brewers know, then, that a thick lidded
moromi in its final stages will often lead to a sake that is rough, acidic and less refined.
Naturally, today these observations are combined with chemical measurements such as acidity, residual sugar,
and temperature to create the precise and wonderful flavor profile they aim at.
For those interested in a bit more than words, the below links offer some excellent photos of the foam at every
stage, corresponding to the explanation above.
It is also interesting to note that there are some yeast
strains that do not create foam during fermentation. Although the first such "awa-nashi" (foamless) yeast was actually isolated at a sake brewery in Hawaii, there are several strains of awa-nashi yeast
in use today.
The advantages of these strains are that brewers can get more sake out of a given tank, as they do not need to allow extra space at the top for the rising foam. Also, as mentioned above,
the top part of the tank where the foam has clung to the walls is a huge source of contaminating bacteria. Foamless yeasts eliminate this concern.
There are awa-nashi strains that correspond to many
normally foaming strains. For example, Yeast #901 is a foamless version of Yeast #9. Yeast #1001 is a foamless version of Yeast #10. As you may have guesses, adding a -01 suffix to a yeast name is a conventional
way of indicating it is a foamless version.
Most brewers say that other than the foam, the yeasts are exactly the same, so that a 901 will produce the same array of aromatics, ferment with the same
vigor, and work in the same small temperature range. However, there are a few that say that awa-nashi versions are just not the same.
Finally, many brewers simply prefer the foam, as it gives them one
more source of all-important input that can be used in assessing the progress of a fermenting tank, and when a sake is ready to be pressed. The five senses are, after all, the most reliable tools of the
The Sake of Nara Prefecture
Nara prefecture is, in one sense, the heartland or origin of modern Japan. The first permanent capital was set
up in Nara the eighth century, although it would move to Kyoto in 794.
Nara can also be considered the historical heartland of sake for similar reasons. Historically and culturally, Nara is an extremely
significant sake-brewing locale.
In 689, the then-imperial palace in Nara established a brewing department within its walls. Obviously, this was the first attempt at systematizing and improving what had
already become Japan's national beverage.
Often, it is technically hard to pinpoint just when sake became sake. But it was certainly close to what we know today by this time. Certain steps of the
process had yet to be refined and improved upon, and in fact major steps like koji production and the use of yeast starters had not yet come into being. Also, in that Imperial Brewing Department, there were
something like 13 different sake being produced, all for different occasions. White sake, black sake, and sake of higher and lower alcohol were some of the variants. As sake was (and is) tied in so closely with
the Shinto religion, each of these variations was used in a different ceremony, festival or event.
Eventually sake brewing moved from the palace to temples and shrines, and then again to the common folk.
So technically advanced was the sake of Nara that even into the Muromachi period (1333 - 1573) the term "Nara-zake" signified great sake.
Nara is also the location of Omiwa Jinja, said to be
the oldest Shinto Shrine in Japan. Enshrined here is the god of sake brewing. The sugi trees on the grounds of this shrine are used to make saka-bayashi, the green or brown globes seen hung at sake-related
establishments all over Japan.
Also, each year on November 14, brewery owners and toji from the region gather for the Sake Matsuri (sake festival), to pray for a safe and successful brewing season. As
Nara is close to both the brewing centers of Fushimi (Kyoto) and Nada (Kobe), this has historically been a very important event.
Because Nara is so close to the two brewing centers mentioned above, until
recently many of the small makers engaged in "oke-uri," or "tank selling," i.e. brewing sake for other large breweries. This practice has died down lately, both for economic reasons (not as
much nihonshu is being consumed) and for reasons of local pride.
There are currently just over 50 breweries in Nara. Almost all are very small brewers. Overall the sake from Nara is slightly soft and
light, neither too sweet nor too dry, yet with plenty of flavor and character. Although not always easy to find outside of Nara, some names to look for include Yamatsuru, wonderful Tama no Tsuyu, the excellent
Hanatomoe, Yatagarasu and Hyaku-raku-mon. More commonly found sake include Harushika, Hoshuku, and sterling Ume no Yado.
See more about Nara sake in the Good Sake To Look For section below.
Good Sake to Look For
A bit more about some of those good Nara sake.
Ume no Yado
A fairly small brewery with a long and storied history and a fine
reputation. Here, they use lots of Bizen Omachi rice as well as plenty of Yamada Nishiki, giving an interesting balance of profiles to their products. Most recommended is their eternally drinkable Ume no Yado
"Kobai" Junmai Ginjo and their "Nara" Ginjo. Ume no Yado also has at least one product in the US; another junmai ginjo.
This brewery keeps ties to the past and eyes
on the future. They were quick in bringing computers into some aspects of the brewing process, like rice polishing. Yet, they helped revive a very, very old brewing process called Bodai-moto, which was used back
when monks in temples brewed sake in Nara. Most recommended is their fruity and layered "Banri" Junmai Daiginjo, and their Junmai Ginjo, which can also be quite nice gently warmed.
Another very tiny kura (they abound in Nara) that focuses on premium sake made with premium rice. Their *average* seimai-buai is 46%, meaning that the sake they make is brewed using rice
with on the average the outer 64% milled away. The water they use is quite soft for this region, giving them a rather uniquely light and delicate flavor profile. Indeed, their several daiginjo products (using a
couple of different rice types) exemplify the best things about Yamatsuru.
Harushika's "Cho-karakuchi Junmai" is a wonderful and universally appreciated sake, being
widely available both in Japan, and well distributed in the US and Europe as well. The brewery is very, very old and has a distinguished past. An ancestor of the family was once the head priest at the
oldest temple to be brewing sake, Kasuga Taisha. This sake is, as its name Chokarakuchi indicates, very dry, but with enough body and presence to make it wonderfully drinkable and enjoyable.
One more very, very tiny producer. They have always felt here that it is better to put money into good rice then new fancy equipment, and so combine traditional techniques with lots of great
rice. Even their honjozo is brewed with Yamada Nishiki. Their sake is both light and clean, and lively, balanced and flavorful at the same time. Their namazake (unpasteurized) products seem to particularly
excel, such as the "Yamada 50" Junmai Ginjo.
Do you work for a company in Japan? John Gauntner is available for corporate sake seminars. A wide variety of
formats are possible: in house, at a sake pub, with food, without, with lectures on a variety of sake-related topics. Please contact John by email for more information.
In the US:
It's not too
late! On Saturday, May 4, 2002, the first annual Sake Summit will be held at the Rihga Royal Hotel in New York City. Hosted by the International Sake Institute, the Summit will give event goers a rare
opportunity to taste dozens of top-tier sakes under one roof. Consumer judging will take place from 12pm to 5pm. Educational seminars will be offered throughout the day, including "Sake in Japan" by
John Gauntner, "Sake 101" (in Japanese) by Haruo Matsuzaki, "Sake 101" (in English) by Grif Frost, "Sake Food Pairing" by Randy Caparoso, and "Sake Home Brewing" by Fred
Eckhardt. Home brewers will be submitting their home-brewed sake for judging in a special contest as well. A limited number of 400 tickets go on sale March 28. Tickets are available through the ISI at
Boston, Tuesday May 14, 2002
The Japan Society if Boston will host a lecture and sake tasting, with a presentation by John Gauntner on Nama Junmai Daiginjo, and The National New Sake
Tasting Competition. A tasting will follow, attended by a dozen sake brewers from the Sake Export Association. For more information contact the Japan Society of Boston at 617-451-0726; or email
New York City, Thursday May 16, 2002
The Japan Society will host a lecture and sake tasting, with a presentation by John Gauntner on Nama Junmai Daiginjo, and The National New Sake
Tasting Competition. A tasting will follow, attended by a dozen sake brewers from the Sake Export Association. For more information contact the Japan Society at 212-832-1155; or visit
The Sake Companion, published by Running Press
A hardbound, well designed book, The Sake Companion approaches the sake
world from a bit more of a romantic, cultural side, and less of a technical touch. Unlike my first book, The Sake Handbook, this new volume covers material like sake history and the differences in sake styles
and flavor profiles from the major sake-producing regions of Japan. Sake production is also explained, although not in as much detail as in The Sake Handbook. Almost 140 sake are introduced with numerical
rankings and an indication of the region from which each hails. Large, full-color photographs of the labels makes them easier to remember. (say again: A good high acidity may increase the sense of dryness of a
sake by lightening and spreading out the flavor. A low acid content, on the other hand, can help a sake to feel fuller and heavier, and increase a sense of sweetness.
Also included is a listing of
where to buy and drink sake in the US. As this book is geared mostly to a market other than Japan, where to buy and drink sake in Japan is not covered, as it is in The Sake Handbook.
The Sake Companion
is available at bookstores such as Borders for $24.95, as well as at Amazon for a bit less. If you are in Japan, Amazon.co.jp is highly recommended, as the price in Japanese bookstores is quite high (4490 yen).
Also worth searching for:
-The Sake Handbook (John Gauntner): A bit more technical but with a listing of 50 sake pubs in Tokyo.
-Sake: Pure and Simple (John Gauntner, Griffith Frost): A light,
pure and simple guide to sake.
-Sake, An Insider's Guide (Phillip Harper): A pocket sized, well-written book by an insider; Harper brews sake at a kura (Rikyubai in Osaka) in Japan.
Drinker's Guide (Hiroshi Kondo): The original book on sake in English, nice historic notes and good peripheral information.
If you have
even a passing interest in brewing sake at home, you must check out The Sake Digest, a mailing list on sake home brewing maintained by Jim Liddil at email@example.com. On this list, issues both stylistic
and technical, detailed and general, are discussed by enthusiastic and knowledgeable home brewers. Fred Eckhardt, easily the most experienced sake home-brewer in North America, regularly generously imparts his
experience and wisdom to readers. A message is generated perhaps twice a week, so one in not inundated with information and countless emails. It is quite interesting to follow along with the apparently
successful efforts of these brewers from a cyber-distance.
Most recently, several brewers are experimenting with koji obtained from SakeOne Corporation in Oregon, with apparently significantly improved
results. This koji can be purchased from F.H. Steinbarts for about $8.00 for a 2.5 lb. Batch. For more information call Steinbarts, at 503-232-8793.
Also, koji spores (as opposed to completed koji) are
also available from Vision Brewing in Australia. According to proprietor Brendan Tibbs, the product is available online for anyone, and is particularly suitable to the home brewer. Contact him at Vision Brewing:
firstname.lastname@example.org, and see their site at http://www.kagi.com/vision/sake.
To subscribe to The Sake Digest, send the word "subscribe" without the quotes to email@example.com . To unsubscribe,
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Copyright 2002 Sake World