Issue #5: January 15, 2000
In this issue:
A brief history of sake and sake brewing
Sake to look for
Sake-related events (Japan)
Feedback and Q&A
Silly Regulations (Part I)
often arises from among US readers, "here can I find good sake near my home?"Almost as frequent heard is the question, "an I buy any good sake over the internet?"
Unfortunately, I must
most often answer that I can be of little help.
As far as helping readers find what sake is available near them, or where their favorite brand is, or where good sake in general can be found in a specific
area, that information is changing constantly and certainly not located in one place. The closest thing to a US directory is the book Sake Pure and Simple, which lists places that sell and serve sake all over
the US. And, although it has been published very recently, it certainly does not have the absolute latest information. Certainly even more stores have begun stocking and selling premium sake since then. There
are literally hundreds of brands currently imported into the US, as well as several being brewed domestically.
Yet, despite the fact that more and more places are indeed making good sake available, sake
is light years from being a standard product, or one that sells in any volume. Yet. This means that it is still not accorded much shelf space or priority in the minds and plans of distributors and wholesalers,
in particular. Point being, it is still relatively hard to find around town.
That leaves the Internet. Ah, yes, the Internet.
Since we know there is plenty of good sake out there, why can' we
just contact those who are selling it, where ever they may be, and have them ship it to us? In this day and age we would expect that we could just order it over the Internet and have it sent to us. In a perfect,
free-commerce world, this would be true. But the US has a few old laws on the books left over from the days when Prohibition ended that, it could be argued, no longer serve the public. In short, with the
exception of about 13 states, it is not legal to ship alcoholic beverages to consumers over state lines.
Many readers may have come up against this seeming brick wall already, perhaps in their
attempt to obtain fine wines over the internet. (Kudos to the wine industry for breaking ground here.) It all starts with what is known as the "hree tier system"for alcoholic beverages.
short, there are three tiers to the industry. The top tier is that of producer, like winery, brewery or distillery, OR importer and/or out-of-state-shipper (OOS). The second tier is that of wholesaler or
distributor (for all intents and purposes, the same thing). The third tier is retailer. To keep unsavory elements from controlling the industry, no company is allowed to own an interest in more than one tier.
There are some exceptions, gray areas, and quirks to all these laws, and at the same time, I am admittedly not an expert in these legal matters. For examples, wineries can sell directly to consumers in
many cases, especially for wines not in distribution. Also, distributor/wholesalers can be out-of-state-shippers, shipping to distributor/wholesalers in other states. But the above is the general gist of the
Next: in order for a sake (as one example) to get into the hands of a consumer in the US, it must pass through all three tiers. In other words, a sake imported would need to go through an
importer, wholesaler, and retail shop or restaurant before coming to you, the consumer. Naturally, each tier takes its margin, adding to the final price along the way.
And, finally, sake cannot be
shipped from a retailer (or other entity legally permitted to sell directly to consumers) to a consumer in another state, with the exception of the 13 "eciprocal"states that allow it. This means that
if a distributor in your state does not carry a sake, it is all but impossible for you to get it.
For the record, those states are: CA, CO, ID, IL, IA, MN, MO, NE, NM, OR, WA, WV, and WI. This list
the list to the best of my knowledge. One or two more states may have joined this "lliance"of common sense since the source I referenced was written.
There are, in fact, even more laws
and regulations of dubious usefulness exist on the books to further hamper the efforts of those of us trying to learn about and enjoy sake. Next month, we will look at a few more such rules, and address the
situation more thoroughly.
Note! Do not take the information in this newsletter as being legally correct! Be sure to check out any and all conditions with the appropriate local authorities!
A Brief History of Sake (Part I)
The History of Sake
The history of sake is a bit difficult to clearly lay down. Sake
itself has taken many forms and changed quite a bit over the centuries, and just when it became the beverage we know today depends on how it is defined.
But working with fairly loose interpretations,
sake, like the other fruit and grain fermented beverages of the world, was not so much developed as discovered. Rice that was left out uncovered was exposed to natural airborne enzyme-producing spores. Yeast
then fell on the resulting moldy mixture, which was found to create a certain euphoria in those that consumed it. This in turn provoked enough curiosity that a more controlled process was eventually sought.
People would take a bit of this and save it, mixing it with rice later to make another "atch,"similar to a sourdough starter. At this stage, the pseudo-sake was still more of a
solid mixture than a beverage, and was also relatively low in alcohol since not much yeast at all came into the equation.
Wet rice cultivation began in Japan about the third century, and surely
concoctions like the above moldy rice mash were soon to follow. Eventually, in about the 7th century, more technically advanced methods began to trickle in from China and Korea.
Perhaps the first great
milestone of the long and winding history of sake was the establishment of a brewing department within the Imperial Palace in the then-capital of Nara (modern-day Nara Prefecture). Although the capital soon
moved to Kyoto, certainly some significant progress was made during this time.
Entering into the Heian Era (794-1192), the commoners continued to feast on slightly improved versions of the soupy sake
described above, whereas the aristocracy appointed a group of craftsmen to develop and brew several types of sake. It was about this time that some sake began to be consumed warmed, which is seen to have likely
been a Chinese influence. If only they knew what they started.
These craftsmen were at the time producing at least 15 types of sake. Brewed for different occasions, festivals and holidays, there was a
wide range of not only flavor profiles, but brewing techniques as well. Some were sweet, some were heavy, others were brewed for high alcohol content. Still others were flavored or colored.
the walls of the palace, there were about 180 independent brewers in the Kyoto area alone. Soon, sake breweries located on the grounds of temples and shrines, with their plentiful supply of land, rice and
industrious monks, began to flourish. As the economy began to stabilize, many brewing families aligned themselves with shrines and temples as well, to ensure their survival and prosperity.
In the late
14th century, there was a lot of healthy competition among the several hundred brewers in Kyoto, and lots of technical developments took place. The step of using a "tarter"mash of an extremely high
concentration of yeast cells was developed in this era, as was the isolation of k~oji spores, (Aspergillus Oryzae, to use the proper scientific monicker), the mold converting rice starch to sugar for
As Japan went in and out of civil war, the capital moved to Kamakura and back, and the sake world too rose and fell. But the technology behind it grew steadily. Pasteurization came into use
based on empirical observations, although it would be several hundred years before Louis Pasteur figured out why it worked. Texts from 1599 indicate the use of the three-stage brewing process used today. It was
also about this time that 100% milled white rice (as opposed to brown rice) began to be used. With this, all the key elements of sake brewing as we know it today were in place.
Which is not to say
that sake brewers coasted or rested on their laurels. No, over the next 300 years or so, technical improvements continued to pop up in the industry. Most were certainly the result of experience and the need to
save time and manpower. As chemical analysis and the ability to more accurately measure temperature and other parameters became possible, sake with a more consistently higher standard came into being.
(To be continued next month)
Sake to look for... picking up from last month.
Since we are still wading through winter,
deep in her chilly, white depths, here are five sake that are warming and solid when gently heated. (Try to keep it about 40C, or 110F or so.)
Tosatzuru, Junmai-shu, Kochi Prefecture
nose, with a faint sweet creaminess to it. As is most sake from Kochi, Tosatzuru is quite dry. Yet, it is far from being overly light and clean, having rather a nice if mellow presence to it. The profile from
beginning to end is even and balanced, with no overpowering facets. Earthy tones present themselves after a few seconds. Long and acid-bolstered tail that tingles somewhat as it fades away. Rating: 84
Kariho, "okushu"Ginjo-shu, Akita
Rokushu has a somewhat full body but with the rougher edges polished away, leaving a light sake with a good amount of content as a result. Leaning just
a bit on the dry side, the flavor is tight but laced with various elements of nuts, rice and even a trace of richer fruit.A charming liveliness comes out at room temperature, but a calming crispness is most
apparent when cool or chilled. Versatile sake indeed. Rating: 88
Urakasumi, Junmai-shu, Miyagi
One of the original movers and shakers of the ginjo-shu boom. A relaxed and mellow flavor, not wildly
distinct but consistent and fitting for a great many occasions. Mellow fragrance dominated by steamed rice, chestnuts and acidity, a dry flavor profile that gives rise to a nice second bouquet as you drink.
Gokyo, Junmai-shu, Yamaguchi
Gokyo exhibits the wonderful quality of having an "ku-bukai"flavor, a deep and layered flavor profile that always seems to present another aspect
from the background. A mellow, nutty nose that fades a bit too quickly for some, and a full, very balanced flavor. The tail leaves slightly bitter and acidic notes as it slowly fades. Overall, Gokyo is perhaps
the most elegant and subtle of the above selections. Rating: 90
Nishinoseki, Junmai-shu, Oita
A player in the world of premium sake from long ago, on the same scale as Urakasumi, Nishi no Seki has
been making and selling ginjo-shu for decades. Their junmai, however, is enough to satisfy. Rich and cocoa-laced, there is a nice sweet richness to it that also makes it wonderful warmed. A slightly astringent
nose typical of junmai-shu. Rating: 87
eSake.com Update Newsletter
As announced in the last issue, all those interested in taking their sake experience beyond the digital text realm and into
actually tasting the stuff should check out www.eSake.com. There you will find a rich resource on sake, how it is made, the culture and people that make it, and plenty of information on sake and food. And, if
you live in Japan, you can order from upwards of 40 types, and have they shipped to your door. Check it out.
Below are excerpts from the eSake Update Newsletter. You can subscribe to that directly, just
http://www.esake.com/About_eSake/Join_Update_Club/join_update_club.html (or follow links from eSake' home page).
(begin eSake Update Newsletter)
Hello eSake Update
May favorable winds fill your sails in the new millennium!!
MAJOR SITE UPGRADES:
to sake, or Japanese rice wine? Feeling clueless?
The new Sake Workshop contains four basic lessons to
make your sake experience both educational and
enjoyable. To jump
directly to the Workshop, please visit:
This newly added section contains tons of information
on matching sake with food. During the month of January,
we will be adding special sake-based recipes, and
invite you to enter the Sake Recipe contest. Winners
will receive a free three-bottle gift set of premium daiginjo.
To enter the contest, send your recipe to
To jump directly to the new SAKE AND FOOD page, please visit:
In February, look forward to
major additions to the
SAKE BY FLAVOR page, where you can learn about the
various flavor charateristics and food
SAKE TRAVEL KIT and SAKE GIFT SETS
These pages now include actual photos of the specially
boxed and gift-wrapped products. Just visit the
SAKE STORE to gain access to these pages.
During the month of January, eSake.com will provide
gift-wrapping and customized gift cards FREE of
WHO CAN ORDER? OVERSEAS SALES COMING SOON!
Although you must ship to an address in Japan, you
need to live in Japan to order from our store.
We are working hard to launch direct sales to the
USA market, and hope to begin USA sales sometime
In the near future.
European sales to follow sometime after that.
SAKE BREWING SEASON NOW IN FULL SWING IN JAPAN
All over Japan, the sake-brewing
season is now in full swing. Naturally, at large breweries, where brewing continues year round, not much has changed. But at smaller, traditional breweries (like those whose sake is available on eSake.com), the
craftsmen that do the brewing have been
working hard since late October.
For the first couple of months, while the weather is still relatively warm, they get the kinks out, so to speak, and
brew their regular-grade sake. Now, however, as things chill out, work will begin on higher grades of sake. This entails much more labor-intensive work, since many of the
automated operations are done by
hand; this added effort imparts undeniable differences in quality.
January and February are, in general, the peak of the premium-sake brewing season. Why? The colder temperatures give rise to more
controllable brewing conditions. Premium sake like ginjo-shu is fermented more slowly, at lower temperatures. It is easy to control all of this when the ambient temperature is cold as well.
this takes its toll on the brewers themselves, who are called upon to sacrifice sleep and comfort to expend the physical energy with the requisite timing to create the fruit of their ancient craft.
Things will wind down again in the spring, usually in late March or early April. As temperatures rise slowly, breweries will begin to curtail their production, tapering it off for the season.
Note, now is an excellent time to visit a local sake brewery. Most are quite willing to give tours of the brewing facilities, with just a phone call in advance. The breweries represented here at
eSake.com are particularly welcoming to visitors, should you be in the area. Should you have inquiries, do not hesitate to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
(end eSake.com update
SAKE-RELATED EVENTS (JAPAN)
On the evening of Saturday, January 22, Japan Times Ceramics Scene columnist and
yakimono expert Rob Yellin and sake guru John Gauntner will be hosting their first sake and Japanese pottery (sake utensils, of course) seminar of the new year, new century and new millenium at the sake pub
Mushu near Shin Ochanomizu/Awajicho Stations,
from 6pm to 9pm. If you are interested in more details and/or attending, please email John at email@example.com. Participation is limited to 45, and should fill
The cost for half a dozen sakes for sampling, ample food, and two enlightening lectures with printed handouts is 7000 yen. No deposit is required. Directions shown
John will cover sake basics: different types, why the difference in prices, how to know a good sake from a bad one, hot versus cold, et cetera. (Those that have attended John's seminars before
may hear some material repeated, but the sake will be new.) Rob will cover material on
basic pottery styles (kilns) and types, and will have many wares on display, with perhaps some for sale.
DIRECTIONS: The seminar is from 6:00 pm to 9:00 pm (or so). Mushu is the big red door just above exit A5 at Awajicho station on the Shinjuku and Marunouchi Subway lines, which are also connected by
underground pass to the Shin-Ochanomizu station of the Chiyoda line. Mushu's number is 03-3255-1108. The address is Awajicho 1-1-1. John's cell phone number is 090-1996-9578 should that be necessary.
Famed sake critic Haruo Matsuzaki will be holding a sake seminar for ladies on the evening of January 18, also at the aforementioned Mushu. Although this seminar will be entirely in
Japanese, Matsuzaki-san' level of knowledge and experience are superlative, and any and all "ualified individuals"should consider attending. Those interested can make a reservation through me at
Reader Feedback and Q&A
...are both sparse this month. Questions, comments and criticism are all welcome.
In the next issue (scheduled for February 15, 2000):
Silly Regulations, Part II
A Brief History of Sake and Sake Brewing,
Sake to look for
Sake-related events (Japan)
Reader Feedback and Q&A
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Copyright 1999 Sake World